Physiotherapy And Calcaneal Apophysitis

Published May 15, 2015 by krissrsic

Overview

A syndrome of heel pain in skeletally immature individuals. The formal name is: calcaneal apophysitis. The pain is thought to arise from the growth plate (apophysis) and epiphysis. It is thought to be an overuse phenomena. Overloading of the apophysis by both traction (due to Achilles tendon) and compression (sue to weightbearing) have been implicated. Reversible pathologic alterations occur in the apophysis, which cause secondary pain. It is the growth plate and its bone, at the back of the heel bone (calcaneus), whose presence allows for longitudinal growth of calcaneus.

Causes

The cause of Sever’s disease is not entirely clear. It is most likely due to overuse or repeated minor trauma that happens in a lot of sporting activities – the cartilage join between the two parts of the bone can not take all the shear stress of the activities. Some children seem to be just more prone to it for an unknown reason – combine this with sport, especially if its on a hard surface and the risk of getting it increases. It can be almost epidemic at the start of some sports seasons, especially winter. At the start of winter, the grounds are often harder, but soften later. Children who are heavier are also at greater risk for developing calcaneal apophysitis.

Symptoms

Pain is usually felt at the back of the heel and around the sides of the heel. If you squeeze the back of the heel from both sides simultaneously and pain is experienced Sever?s disease is more than likely present.

Diagnosis

Sever?s disease can be diagnosed based on your history and symptoms. Clinically, your physiotherapist will perform a “squeeze test” and some other tests to confirm the diagnosis. Some children suffer Sever?s disease even though they do less exercise than other. This indicates that it is not just training volume that is at play. Foot and leg biomechanics are a predisposing factor. The main factors thought to predispose a child to Sever?s disease include decrease ankle dorsiflexion, abnormal hind foot motion eg overpronation or supination, tight calf muscles, excessive weight-bearing activities eg running.

Non Surgical Treatment

Depending on the Podiatrist’s diagnosis and the severity of the pain, there are several treatment options available. Rest/ reduced activity: your child should reduce or stop any activity that causes pain, such as sports and running. This can be a difficult option, as children are normally quite willful in pursuit of their favorite pastimes! Over the counter anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (found in Nurofen), to help reduce pain and inflammation. Try to make sure your child does the recommended stretching exercises before sport/play. This will should help reduce the stress on the fascia tendon and relieve heel pain. The use of Orthotic insoles. Footactive Kids orthotics are made for children. They will help properly support the foot, help prevent over-pronation or improper gait restoring your child’s foot the the correct biomechanical position. If you are in any doubt or your child’s foot pain persists then please arrange an appointment with a Podiatrist or Physiotherapist. Please click here for more information on the use of orthotics for children.

Prevention

The best way to prevent Sever’s disease is to make sure that your child wears shoes that fit properly. The heel portion of the shoe should not be too tight, and there should be good padding in the heel. It may help to put extra heel pads in your child’s shoes. Some children simply get too much physical activity. For example, they may play on too many teams or practice for too long. Their heel pain is a message to slow down.

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