Bunions occur more commonly in women and can sometimes run in families. People born with abnormal bones in their feet are more likely to form a bunion. Wearing narrow-toed, high-heeled shoes may lead to the development of a bunion. The condition may become painful as extra bone and a fluid-filled sac grow at the base of the big toe. A doctor can usually diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot and, in some cases, arthritis. This really should go without saying but comfort counts, so treat your feet right with well fitting and comfortable shoes.
The most common cause of this deformity is tight, poorly fitting shoes. Sometimes there are structural deformities of the foot that place abnormal pressure on the bones in the feet creating the hallux valgus deformity. Pressure over the metatarsal bone in the foot causes the bone to point abnormally and force the toe to point outwards and the metatarasal bone to point in. If a change in footwear does not help, you may referred to an orthopaedic surgeon. The most common operation performed for bunions is called an excision arthroplasty. The surgeon will cut way the part of the big toe joint that is sticking out and causing the trouble.
Early symptoms of hallux rigidus include pain and stiffness – especially aggravated by cold weather and dampness. You may also have difficulty running or squatting. Swelling and stiffness is also likely to occur around the base of your big toe. As hallux rigidus progresses pain may be constant, wearing shoes can be painful and you may experience hip, knee or lower back pain as a result of minor changes in the way you walk. Treatment A bunion is when your big toe points toward the second toe. This causes a bump on the inside edge of your toe.
In addition to a complete medical history, your doctor may perform a complete physical examination to ensure you are in good health before undergoing the procedure. You may undergo blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Notify your doctor if you have a history of bleeding disorders or if you are taking any anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medications, aspirin, or other medications that affect blood clotting. It may be necessary for you to stop these medications prior to the procedure. You may receive a sedative prior to the procedure to help you relax. Because the sedative may make you drowsy, you will need to arrange for someone to drive you home.
Diagnosis begins with a careful history and physical examination by your doctor. This will usually include a discussion about shoe wear and the importance of shoes in the development and treatment of the condition. X-rays will probably be suggested. This allows your doctor to measure several important angles made by the bones of the feet to help determine the appropriate treatment. Treatment If all nonsurgical measures fail to control the symptoms, then surgery may be suggested to treat the hallux valgus condition. Well over 100 surgical procedures exist to treat hallux valgus. The basic considerations in performing any surgical procedure for hallux valgus are
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